Diabetes mellitus (pronounced) often simply referred to as diabetes is a condition in which a person has a high blood sugar (glucose) level as a result of the body either not producing enough insulin, or because body cells do not properly respond to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas which enables body cells to absorb glucose, to turn into energy. If the body cells do not absorb the glucose, the glucose accumulates in the blood (hyperglycemia), leading to various potential medical complications.
There are many types of diabetes, the most common of which are:
• Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.
• Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.
• Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus is a persistent and perpetual metabolism disorder. It is characterized by high blood glucose level that results in the inability to produce and/or use insulin.
ß cells in a healthy pancreas produce and release insulin, which controls glucose levels in the blood. The number of ß cells is maintained by constant apoptosis and proliferation. However in diabetic patients the delicate balance in number is lost. Therefore protection of the remaining cells and adding a sufficient number of ß cells is the focus of cell therapy of diabetes.
Diabetes awareness is vital, since uncontrolled Diabetes may lead to devastating complications such as cardiovascular diseases, blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, diabetic foot.
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Currently lots of conventional therapies are available for diabetes such as insulin injection and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Many treatments can relieve or delay the onset and development of diabetes and related complications. Yet they do not address the root of the problem that causes pancreatic ß cell dysfunction.
The objective of stem cell treatment for Diabetes is to protect the remaining cells and replenish sufficent ß cells. The treatment enables patients to reduce their insulin and hypoglycemic medications, in some cases even stop taking them. Also relieves chronic diabetic complications.
In our treatment plan we use a combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with neural stem cells (NSCs). The patient will receive a total of two stem cell implantations. Each implantation will include MSc delivered by use of an end intravenous infusion and NSCs via lumbar puncture. Other medications will be given during the treatment as well. The role of these medications includes:
1) controlling the patient's condition as well as maintaining normal blood sugar levels;
2) adjusting the stem cells in vivo, making the stem cells survive and express the due physiological actions.
The mechanisms of the stem cells used in the treatment for diabetes.
A: The main role of the NSCs is to improve the domination of the pancreatic nerves.
B: The main role of the MSCs is to improve the functioning of the pancreas and liver, as described below:
A) The MSc can nourish and support Beta-cells and improve the functioning of the Beta-cells.
B) The MSCs can differentiate into pancreatic cells.
A) The MSCs will be properly directed in the liver, nourishing the liver function and the target cells.
B) The MSCs will change the sensibility of the insulin receptors on the cells' surface, repair insulin post-receptor defects.
C) The MSCs will promote the glyconeogenesis and restrain gluconeogenesis in the liver cells.